Analysis of mechanical devices in tension, for the formation of defects

Reliable operation of mechanical devices depends on many conditions, and one of them is the creation of mechanisms taking into account all the developing stresses, which are divided into basic, additional, local and preliminary.

The cause of mechanical stresses is the interaction of particles of the material when it is loaded. Emerging stresses are a response to the action of external forces and they resist changes in the relative positions of particles.

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Types of stresses:

The main

Stresses developing due to balancing the effects of external factors. Voltages are set by efforts and are determined for the adopted circuit, without taking into account other types of stresses

Preliminary

Artificially created stresses, which are also included in the group of basic

Additional

The nature of this type of stress is an additional connection with respect to the design scheme (for example, pinching of individual elements in the nodes of structures). Such voltages do not cause a systemic imbalance in general. In plastic products, they are neglected.

Local. These are the stresses present in the areas of stress concentration (in the places of support of other elements, under the rollers of the cranes, in the places of fixation of additional elements). In areas with significant changes in cross section, the presence of holes or cracks appears concentration of local stresses. The latter is not taken into account by calculation at ordinary temperature and static loads and is taken into account under low-temperature conditions and dynamic effects.